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Drug efficacy ppt

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View by Category Toggle navigation. Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Title: Monitoring Drug Efficacy. Provided by: Michael Tags: drug efficacy inhibitors monitoring. Latest Highest Rated. Chapter 47, Principles of Toxicology. Chapters 2, 3, 4 on Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism. Blood pressure monitoring for an anti-hypertensive.

Blood coagulation rates i. Very drug specific not covered in detail here. Measure drug levels. In blood generally either serum, plasma, whole blood, or a specific cellular component. Other fluids are possible e.

Need to decide what and when to measure. Important concepts absorption, distribution, metabolism elimination. A few simple equations are handy just three. Serum Detection of circulating substances i. Slightly invasive requires a needlestick and also less sensitive for detection of previous exposure history. Urine Many drugs, toxins and their metabolites are accumulated in urine over time, thereby increasing the sensitivity of detection for both current and past use. Because urine may remain positive long after the physiological effects of a substance have disappeared, detection of a drug in urine does not always explain a patients current clinical condition.

Quantitation is not that useful as variability in the timing of collection compared to drug exposure and also variability in the specific gravity of urine i. Note that Vd and Cl usually given in weight-based units hence, it is also necessary to find out the patients weight. Of course, knowledge of the references ranges for efficacy and toxicity of the drug is critical as well.

Half life is the key for knowing When a new medication is started, how long until the patient reaches steady state?

drug efficacy ppt

When a patient stops taking a medication, how long until it is gone? When a drug dosage is changed, how long until a new steady state is achieved? In some fortunate cases, other measurements are excellent surrogates for drug levels e. Maintain drug level above some minimally effective level e.Obviously, a drug or any medical treatment should be used only when it will benefit a patient.

Benefit takes into account both the drug's ability to produce the desired result efficacy and the type and likelihood of adverse effects safety.

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Efficacy can be assessed accurately only in ideal conditions ie, when patients are selected by proper criteria and strictly adhere to the dosing schedule. Thus, efficacy is measured under expert supervision in a group of patients most likely to have a response to a drug, such as in a controlled clinical trial.

Effectiveness differs from efficacy in that it takes into account how well a drug works in real-world use.

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Often, a drug that is efficacious in clinical trials is not very effective in actual use. For example, a drug may have high efficacy in lowering blood pressure but may have low effectiveness because it causes so many adverse effects that patients stop taking it. Effectiveness also may be lower than efficacy if clinicians inadvertently prescribe the drug inappropriately eg, giving a fibrinolytic drug to a patient thought to have an ischemic stroke, but who had an unrecognized cerebral hemorrhage on CT scan.

Thus, effectiveness tends to be lower than efficacy. Patient-oriented outcomes, rather than surrogate or intermediate outcomes, should be used to judge efficacy and effectiveness. Patient-oriented outcomes are those that affect patients' well-being. They involve one or more of the following:. Surrogate, or intermediate, outcomes involve things that do not directly involve patients' well-being.

They are often such features as physiologic parameters eg, blood pressure or test results eg, concentrations of glucose or cholesterol, tumor size on CT scan that are thought to predict actual patient-oriented outcomes.

For example, clinicians typically presume that lowering blood pressure will prevent the patient-oriented outcome of uncontrolled hypertension eg, death resulting from myocardial infarction or stroke.

However, it is conceivable that a drug could lower blood pressure but not decrease mortality, perhaps because it has fatal adverse effects. Also, if the surrogate is merely a marker of disease eg, HbA1C rather than a cause of disease eg, elevated blood pressurean intervention might lower the marker by means that do not affect the underlying disorder. Thus, surrogate outcomes are less desirable measures of efficacy than patient-oriented outcomes.

On the other hand, surrogate outcomes can be much more feasible to use, for example, when patient-oriented outcomes take a long time to appear eg, kidney failure resulting from uncontrolled hypertension or are rare.

In such cases, clinical trials would need to be very large and run for a long time unless a surrogate outcome eg, lowered blood pressure is used. Numerical variables, unlike dichotomous outcomes, may indicate the magnitude of an effect. Thus, use of surrogate outcomes can often provide much more data for analysis than can patient-oriented outcomes, allowing clinical trials to be done using many fewer patients.

However, surrogate outcomes should ideally be proved to correlate with patient-oriented outcomes. There are many studies in which such correlation appeared reasonable but was not actually present.

For example, treatment of certain postmenopausal women with estrogen and progesterone resulted in a more favorable lipid profile but failed to achieve the hypothesized corresponding reduction in myocardial infarction or cardiac death.Toggle navigation.

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View by Category Toggle navigation. Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Title: Antimalarial drugs. Quinidine : parenteral treatment of severe falciparum malaria. Tags: antimalarial drugs malaria treatment. Latest Highest Rated. Title: Antimalarial drugs 1 Anti-protozoal Drugs 2 Protozoa are eukaryotes and unicellular organisms.

Most of the protozoal infections are due to unhygienic conditions. Less easily treated than bacterial infections and antiprotozoal drugs are more toxic.

Protzoal infections may be one or more infection results from the following Amoebiasis, trypanosomiasis, girdiasis, leishmaniasis, trichomoniasis, Malaria, toxoplasmosis.

Diloxanide Furoate, Iodoquinol, Paromomycin, Metronidazole. Tissue amebicides used to destroy amoebae that have invaded tissue, rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the site of infection. Metronidazole, Tinidazole. For amebic liver abscess. Metronidazole, Tinidazole, Diloxanide Furoate. The reduced product is cytotoxic, it targets DNA other proteins, resulting in cell death. Contra-indications First trimester of pregnancy Chronic alcoholism 12 Emetine Dehydroemetine Effective against tissue trophozoites of E histolytica, not used nowadays because of high systemic toxicity Dehydroemetine is preferred better toxicity profile.

Acts by inhibiting protein synthesis used SC or IM. Cardiac side effects like myocarditis, tachycardia, Hypotension, Cardiac arrhythmias Stiffness of muscles 13 Diloxanide furoate Effective luminal amebicidesUsed with metronidazole to treat serious intestinal and extraintestinal infections, by unknown mechanism.

Appears to have activity against metronidazole-resistant protozoal strains Is well tolerated Greenish tint to urine 15 Paromomycin Sulfate Is an aminoglycoside antibiotic Not significantly absorbed from the GIT. IM Pain at the injection site, Sterile abscesses. Inhaled Cough, Dyspnea, Bronchospasm. Is the first-line therapy for early hemolymphatic East African trypanosomiasis.

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Mitra is seeking to expand its range of partnerships to further increase the impact of its platform on patient outcomes. The platform consists of an ex vivo patient tumor culture model that uses intact tumor slices cultured with autologous plasma and autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Data are analyzed using proprietary machine-learning algorithms that connect ex vivo data with clinical outcomes.

The CANscript platform supports cancer drug screening in the native tumor environment ex vivo and utilizes multiple terminal and kinetic assays to predict clinical outcomes and help prioritize treatment strategies. Mitra works closely with biopharma partners on implementing CANscript, from project development through to study execution. The platform affords many drug development and discovery applications.

CANscript has already contributed to the prediction of drug efficacies subsequently corroborated in clinical studies in two separate drug development programs. CANscript also has tremendous clinical potential to inform and improve patient care. This is currently being demonstrated in a multinational prospective study in which CANscript will be used to inform the care of 1, patients with five solid tumor types. From the publishers of Naturethe BioPharma Dealmakers website brings together life sciences companies and individuals looking to identify and attract partners and dealmaking opportunities.

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BioPharma Dealmakers is THE destination for partnering professionals looking to make connections and get the latest on their industry. Sponsor content. Mitra Biotech. Like 0 Comment. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn. Copy the link. The CANscript opportunity Mitra works closely with biopharma partners on implementing CANscript, from project development through to study execution.

References 1 Majumder, B. Mitra Biotech Mitra Biotech is a global leader in advancing truly personalized oncology treatment. CANscript delivers powerful, individualized treatment response predictions — with exceptionally high correlation to clinical outcomes — to inform patient-specific cancer treatment selection and support more effective and efficient cancer drug development. Founded inMitra is headquartered in Greater Boston and maintains a significant research and laboratory presence in Bengaluru, India.

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Feel free to contribute! Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. We are using cookies on our website. Please confirm, if you accept our tracking cookies. You can also decline the tracking, so you can continue to visit our website without any data sent to third-party services.The main goals of drug development are effectiveness and safety.

Because all drugs can harm as well as help, safety is relative. The difference between the usual effective dose and the dose that causes severe or life-threatening side effects is called the margin of safety. A wide margin of safety is desirable, but when treating a dangerous condition or when there are no other options, a narrow margin of safety often must be accepted.

If a drug's usual effective dose is also toxic, doctors do not use the drug unless the situation is serious and there is no safer alternative.

Pharmacokinetics 1 - Introduction

The most useful drugs are effective and, for the most part, safe. Penicillin is such a drug. Except for people who are allergic to it, penicillin is virtually nontoxic, even in large doses. On the other hand, barbiturates, which were once commonly used as sleep aids, can interfere with breathing, dangerously lower blood pressure, and even cause death if taken in excess.

Newer sleep aids such as temazepam and zolpidem have a wider margin of safety than barbiturates do. Designing effective drugs with a wide margin of safety and few side effects cannot always be achieved. Consequently, some drugs must be used even though they have a very narrow margin of safety. For example, warfarinone of the drugs that is taken to prevent blood clotting, can cause bleeding, but it is used when the need is so great that the risk must be tolerated.

People who take warfarin need frequent checkups to see whether the drug is causing the blood to clot too much, too little, or appropriately. Clozapine is another example.

This drug often helps people with schizophrenia when all other drugs have proved ineffective. But clozapine has a serious side effect: It can decrease the production of white blood cells, which are needed to protect against infection.

Because of this risk, people who take clozapine must have their blood tested frequently as long as they take the drug. To help ensure that their treatment plan is as safe and effective as possible, people should keep their health care practitioners well informed about their medical history, drugs including over-the-counter drugs and dietary supplements including medicinal herbs that they are currently taking, and any other relevant health information.

In addition, they should not hesitate to ask a doctor, nurse, or pharmacist to explain the goals of treatment, the types of side effects and other problems that may develop, and the extent to which they can participate in the treatment plan.

Drug Efficacy and Safety

People can help make their treatment plan as safe and effective as possible by telling the doctor, nurse, or pharmacist:. What drugs prescription and nonprescription and dietary supplements including medicinal herbs they have taken in the previous few weeks.

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Whether they have or have had any allergies or unusual reactions to drugs, foods, or other substances.Its content is used for the definitions below. The value of a drug's potency should be stated in terms of a dose, i. For instance, Wikipedia defines it as "the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity", which is memorably short but very vague.

The IUP also add that it is "an imprecise term that should always be further defined" in terms of EC 50for example and complain that the term is "sometimes, incorrectly, used to refer to the maximum effect attainable". These complaints don't make up any part of this definition, and it is not described as a definition per se, but rather as "suggested usage". Efficacy in Katzung is discussed using the term "maximal efficacy" or E maxand no specific definition is offered probably because this is better explained using an example.

Stephenson needed to discuss the effect of agonist drugs on the tissues:. This property will be referred to as the efficacy of the drug".

drug efficacy ppt

The key thing to grasp here is that a drug, when occupying the receptor, does not by default produce one standard unit of response. This is obviously not something that can be measured uniformly for all drugs what units would you use? But, it is still possible to express this variable numerically, as a ratio of the drug's maximal efficacy to the maximal efficacy of some known potent agonist. It is best expressed as a fraction of the effect produced by a full agonist of the same type acting through the same receptors under the same conditions.

drug efficacy ppt

The IUP stressed that it is only sensible to discuss maximal agonist effect within the framework of specific experimental conditions, "because maximal effects are highly dependent on the experimental conditions such as tissue used, level of receptor expression, the type of measurement used e. Here, Drug A achieves a higher maximum effect than Drug B.

Drug A is therefore said to be more efficacious.

drug efficacy ppt

Here, both Drug A and Drug B achieve the same maximum effect, i. However, Drug A achieves this effect at a lower dose i. Neubig, Richard R.

Update on terms and symbols in quantitative pharmacology. Stephenson, R. All SAQs related to this topic. All vivas related to this topic. Katzung Neubig, Richard R. Email Address. Send Message.